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Agricultural Market Structure, Generic Advertising, and Welfare AgEcon
Cardon, James H.; Pope, Rulon D..
This analysis begins with a definition and discussion of productive advertising. Then, following Dixit and Norman, persuasive advertising is used to study the welfare effects of generic advertising by marketing orders. The study first examines horizontal competition when the competing advertiser is a monopoly, and results show that the socially optimal level of advertising for a competitive marketing order is positive only if advertising raises monopoly output. Next, advertising choices of a marketing order which sells its output to a monopolistic distributor are considered. If the distributor is a monopolist, then marketing order advertising raises welfare. This finding is in marked contrast to the results for the horizontal case studied by Dixit and...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Advertising; Market structure; Welfare; Marketing.
Ano: 2003 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31098
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Agricultural trade policy reform in South Africa AgEcon
Chitiga, Margaret; Kandiero, Tonia; Ngwenya, P..
This paper empirically investigates the impact of agricultural trade reform in South Africa. Using UNCTAD’s Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model (ATPSM), the study investigates two specific scenarios that capture the magnitude of (i) the economic impact of global agricultural trade reform in South Africa and (ii) the economic impact if the reform in South Africa is coupled with agricultural reforms in the European Union (EU). Trade reform focuses on substantial tariff reduction; although in the case of the EU, scenarios also include reduction in domestic support and export subsidies. The results show that a unilateral tariff reduction in a selected number of agricultural products amounts to welfare gains of US$21 million. These gains are three times...
Tipo: Journal Article Palavras-chave: Agricultural trade; Trade policy reform; Welfare; Agricultural Trade Policy Simulation Model; Agricultural and Food Policy; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/5967
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An assessment of farmer’s risk exposures and policy impacts on farmer’s risk management strategy AgEcon
Anton, Jesus; Kimura, Shingo.
This paper describes farmer’s exposures to risks at the individual farm level and develops a model representing the decisions of an individual risk averse farmer facing variability in both prices and yields. A set of stylised risk market instruments is represented. The model is calibrated using farm level data from Germany. Monte-Carlo simulations of the random variables are run, and the corresponding optimal responses are obtained. The main focus of this paper is the interactions between government payments and the farmers’ use of risk market instruments in terms of the potential crowding out of such instruments and impacts on farm return and welfare. Unlike other studies this paper models farming response to payments in terms of production and the use of...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk; Welfare; Crop yield insurance; Forward contracting and Single Farm Payment; Agricultural and Food Policy; Farm Management; Risk and Uncertainty.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/57663
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AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL FEED AND MALTING BARLEY MARKETS: AN ECONOMETRIC SPATIAL OLIGOPOLISTIC APPROACH AgEcon
Schmitz, Troy G.; Koo, Won W..
A "hybrid" spatial price equilibrium model is developed to evaluate changes in production, consumption, and trade of feed and malting barley under alternative domestic and agricultural trade policy regimes. The analysis includes the economic welfare impacts of changes in various farm subsidy programs on the United States, Canada, Australia, and European Union (EU-15) which are the four major barley exporting countries in the world. The actions of competitive U.S. grain traders under the Export Enhancement Program cause feed barley exports to be segmented into two distinct markets. A spatial equilibrium is established in which the Canadian Wheat Board and Australian marketing boards behave as oligopolists in export markets under arbitrage conditions induced...
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Malting; Feed; Farm Subsidy; Trade Policy; Export Market; Welfare; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 1996 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/23286
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An Economic Analysis of Quarantine: The Economies of Australia's Ban on New Zealand Apple Imports AgEcon
Arthur, Matthew.
The quarantine policy decision-making process in Australia is subject to the principles of the World Trade Organisation's SPS Agreement. It is primarily based on the risks and associated economic costs accruing to producers in the event of disease entry. The costs of a quarantine measure in terms of forgone trade benefits are not considered. The impact associated with this asymmetric approach is identified by demonstrating the gains to consumers which may arise through liberalised markets using a case study of the Australian apple industry. A partial equilibrium analysis is used to show the impacts of apple market liberalisation, which can be expected to yield gains to consumers which are greater than the economic costs to on producers.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Quarantine; Trade; Liberalisation; Apples; Welfare; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2006 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/31959
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An Overview and Assessment of The Economics of Leisure AgEcon
Tisdell, Clement A..
This is a draft of the introductory chapter for The Economics of Leisure which is being published by Edward Elgar Publishing Pty Ltd, Cheltenham, UK, and Northampton, Massachusetts, by whom all rights are reserved. It will appear in The International Library of Critical Writings in Economics series, in two volumes. The draft Table of Contents for these volumes are set out in the Appendix to this paper. Feedback is welcome
Tipo: Working or Discussion Paper Palavras-chave: Leisure; Recreation; Work-leisure choices; Neoclassical economics; Welfare; Taxation; Public Economics; Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/90540
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Application of Pricing Strategy in the Management of Recreational Fishery AgEcon
Zhang, Chen; Han, Xingyong.
This paper analyzes the feasibility of carrying out various pricing strategies in recreational fishery management. It also introduces the four common pricing means, which are time (season) differential pricing, customer differential pricing, quantity discount and two-part tariff system. The effects of pricing strategy of recreational fishery on social welfare are studied taking time (season) differential pricing as an example.
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation Palavras-chave: Recreational fishery; Pricing strategy; Welfare; China; Community/Rural/Urban Development; Demand and Price Analysis; Livestock Production/Industries; Resource /Energy Economics and Policy.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/53526
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Assessment of the Impact of Avian Influenza Related Regulatory Policies on Poultry Meat Trade and Welfare AgEcon
Wieck, Christine; Schlueter, Simon W.; Britz, Wolfgang.
We use two methodological approaches to analyze avian influenza related quarantine measures. First, a Heckman type gravity model is used to estimate the trade impact and second, a spatial partial equilibrium simulation model is developed to simulate welfare changes. The simulation model considers spread and transmission risk according to the disease status of the importing country as well as parameter uncertainty of the calibrated coefficients by using a Monte Carlo approach. The econometric results show that the principle of regionalization is preferred to import trade bans for uncooked meat. The simulation results verify the negative welfare impact of currently implemented regulatory policies and indicate that significant trade diversion effects...
Tipo: Working Paper Palavras-chave: Animal disease; Quarantine measure; Non-tariff measure; Welfare; Gravity model; Simulation model; Agricultural and Food Policy; Demand and Price Analysis; F14; F17; Q11; Q17; Q18.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/122022
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Avian Influenza outbreaks and poultry production mitigation strategies in the U.S. AgEcon
Mu, Jianhong H.; McCarl, Bruce A..
In this paper, two AI mitigation strategies are examined, quarantine and vaccination. Meanwhile, associated welfare changes are evaluated by using FASOM. Results found that changes of total national welfare of U.S are insignificant with or without vaccination. Once comes to livestock producers, impacts become significant although magnitudes are small. For example, under 20% demand shocks, vaccination strategy dominates no vaccination at the production, market and national level. However, vaccination has no advantage when there is no demand shifts.
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: AI outbreak; Mitigation strategies; Vaccination; Demand shift; FASOM; Welfare; Agricultural and Food Policy; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety; Food Security and Poverty; Health Economics and Policy; Q1.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/116452
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Behavior of beef cattle and the microclimate with and without shade - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i4.15055 Animal Sciences
Baliscei, Marcio Antonio; Instituto Paranaense de Assistencia Tecnica e Extencao Rural; Souza, Wander de; Instituto Paranaense de Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural; Barbosa, Orlando Rus; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Cecato, Ulysses; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Krutzmann, Alexandre; Universidade Estadual de Maringá; Queiroz, Edicarlos de Oliveira; Universidade Estadual de Maringá.
It was evaluated the intake behavior of Nellore steers in system without shade (WS), and silvopastoral system (SP) maintained in star grass (Cynodon plectostachyus) in summer and winter. Twenty-four Nellore steers were used (12 in each system), mean age 18 months and weight of 294.5 kg. The design was completely randomized with two seasons, two treatments, 24 hours and 12 repetitions. The observations were conducted in three days, for 24 hours, with an interval of 15 minutes, with effect of the hour on the grazing behavior (GRAZ) with a maximum of 52.1% and lying ruminating (LYRUM) with a minimum of 12.3%, both at 14h. The lying idle (LYIDL) was influenced by hour with a minimum of 11,6%at 14h, and by season, with 23.9% in summer, and 13.9%, in winter....
Tipo: Pesquisa de campo Palavras-chave: Welfare; Season; Nelore; Shadow welfare; Season; Nelore; Shadow.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://periodicos.uem.br/ojs/index.php/ActaSciAnimSci/article/view/15055
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Behaviour of pre-parturient sows housed in intensive outdoor or indoor systems. Repositório Alice
HÖTZEL, M.J.; MACHADO FILHO, L.C.P.; COSTA, O.A.D..
This work compared the behaviour of pre-parturient sows housed in intensive confined and outdoor systems, during the morning and afternoon prior to delivery. Eight sows were kept individually in farrowing crates or in paddocks with access to fresh pasture from 8 to 10 days before expected parturition. All outdoor sows built a nest within 24 hours before farrowing. On the morning and afternoon before farrowing they spent 6.5% of the time collecting grass and 7.5% of the time organizing the nest. Outdoor sows were observed more often than confined sows rooting (4.60% vs. 0.25%), feeding (10.2% vs. 3.0%), standing (51% vs. 13%) and walking (8% vs. 0%). Indoor sows redirected the nesting behaviour to other behaviours like attempts to dig the ground, nosing,...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Farrowing; Welfare; Housing; Husbandry system; Pré-parto; Bem-estar; Alojamento; Sistema de criação.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/113861
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Bem-estar e produção animal. Infoteca-e
ANDRIOLI, A.; BRITO, I. F..
Mudanças no conceito de visão do mundo das pessoas estão mudando devido à limitação dos recursos naturais, questões de origem ética sobre o bem-estar de animais, emergência e re-emergência de enfermidades e qualidade dos alimentos. A sociedade começou a se interessar mais em saber como seu alimento é produzido e exigir produtos que sejam ?limpos, verdes e éticos?, em que se preconiza o uso de práticas que minimizem ou evitem completamente tratamentos químicos ou hormonais nos animais e preservem, dessa forma, a saúde humana. Bem-estar é um termo amplo que inclui uma somatória de elementos que contribuem para a qualidade de vida do animal, levando-o a um bom estado de harmonia com o seu ambiente, caracterizado por condições físicas e fisiológicas adequadas....
Tipo: Documentos (INFOTECA-E) Palavras-chave: Bem-estar; Comportamento animal; Ecologia animal; Welfare; Animal behaviour.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/748310
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Can Conventional Crop Producers Also Benefit From Bt Technology? AgEcon
Dun, Zhe; Mitchell, Paul D..
Transgenic plants producing insecticidal protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been widely adopted since their commercial introduction in 1996. In 2009, 25 countries planted 134 million ha of transgenic crops. The widespread adoption of such plants has reduced use of conventional insecticides while attaining yield gains, thus providing economic, environmental and human health benefits. Because of Bt crops’ high pest control efficacy, there is concern that pests will develop resistance to Bt toxins so that Bt crops are less or no longer effective. To delay the evolution of resistance, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) currently requires Bt crop growers to also plant non-Bt (conventional) crops on a minimum percentage of their...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Welfare; Bt; Pest suppression; Agricultural and Food Policy; Crop Production/Industries.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/103584
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Can Risk Reducing Policies Reduce Farmer's Risk and Improve Their Welfare? AgEcon
Anton, Jesus; Giner, Celine.
This paper develops an analytical model able to represent the decisions of an individual risk averse farmer facing variability in both prices and yields. A comprehensive set of stylised risk reducing policy measures is represented. A calibration of the model is used to run Monte-Carlo simulations and to obtain optimal responses. The main focus is the interaction between policy measures and market strategies in terms of impacts on production, welfare and risk. Risk reducing strategies that cover different sources of risk, such as price and yield variability, may be complementary for the farmers. Counter-cyclical area payments create incentives to bring land into production and their capacity to reduce farming risk is mitigated by the potential crowding out...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Risk; Welfare; Policy; Insurance; Counter-cyclical; Agricultural and Food Policy; Risk and Uncertainty; D81; Q12.
Ano: 2005 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/24578
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Caractérisation de l’adaptation comportementale des téléostéens en élevage : plasticité et effets de la domestication ArchiMer
Benhaim, David.
The farming of aquatic animals has started recently in comparison with that of terrestrial species which domestication started 10 500 years ago. Aquaculture is however the fastest growing animal food-production sector. This sector has now to face several challenges threatening its sustainability. Indeed, aquaculture future largely depends upon the reduction of the reliance on feeds based ingredients derived from wild fishery resources, upon a better knowledge of fish domestication process and of the adaptation mechanisms and related welfare potential. The present work aims at a better understanding of the adaptation to farming conditions through a behavioural approach based on the comparison between wild vs. domesticated populations of three species: a...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Adaptation; Plasticité; Domestication; Bien-être; Comportement alimentaire; Activité de nage; Personnalité; Aliment végétal; Labyrinthe; Statut physiologique; Croissance; Aquaculture; Repeuplement; Adaptation; Plasticity; Learning; Domestication; Welfare; Feeding behaviour; Swimming activity; Personality; Plant-based diet; Maze; Physiological status; Growth; Aquaculture; Restocking.
Ano: 2011 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00078/18926/16515.pdf
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Combined effects of water quality and stocking density on welfare and growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ArchiMer
Person, Jeannine; Labbe, Laurent; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Severe, Armelle; Le Roux, Annick; Le Delliou, Herve; Quemener, Loic.
An 84-day experiment assessed the combined effects of two fresh water quality levels (H: 1.71 +/- 0.15 mg O(2)l(-1) and 0.28 +/- 0.01 mg l(-1) total ammonia nitrogen (T-AN), L: 5.15 +/- 0.07 mg O2l(-1) and 0.54 +/- 0.01 mg T- AN l(-1)) and 3 stabilized stocking densities: 24.8 +/- 0.2, 74.2 +/- 0.5 and 120.0 +/- 0.9 kg m(-3)) on rainbow trout. Fish were fed using demand feeders with rewards proportional to stocking density. Mass increase was significantly affected by water quality and stocking density, being highest in H water and the lowest at 120 kg m(-3). There was no significant difference in final weight between 25 and 74 kg m(-3), but at 120 kg m(-3) it was 27% and 19% lower in H and L water respectively than at 25 kg m(-3). Feed intake (FI) from day...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Growth; Welfare; Stocking density; Water quality; Rainbow trout.
Ano: 2008 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2008/publication-4555.pdf
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Comparative growth and welfare in rainbow trout reared in recirculating and flow through rearing systems ArchiMer
Roque D'Orbcastel, Emmanuelle; Person, Jeannine; Le Bayon, Nicolas; Blancheton, Jean-paul.
The objective of this study was to compare fish performance and welfare at different stocking densities in a recirculating system (RS) and a flow through system (FTS) under field conditions. During the 77 days experiment, the fish survival rate was high (99.3%) and stocking density increased from 57 to 98108 kg m(-3). No significant differences in growth were observed between RS and FTS until day 56. Later, growth decreased in the FTS, while it remained similar to the farm reference at 50 kg m(-3) in the RS. Final weight was 17% higher in RS than in FTS. The maximum carrying capacity of the RS was near 100 kg m(-3), limited by NO2 increase up to safe level at the end of the experiment, the maximum carrying capacity of the FTS was near 85 kg m(-3), probably...
Tipo: Text Palavras-chave: Welfare; Fin; Performance; Stocking density; Recirculating system.
Ano: 2009 URL: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/publication-6509.pdf
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Comportamento ingestivo e parâmetros fisiológicos de bovinos Sindi alimentados com teores crescentes de feno de erva-sal. Repositório Alice
OLIVEIRA, P. T. L.; TURCO, S. H. N.; ARAUJO, G. G. L. de; VOLTOLINI, T. V.; MENEZES, D. R.; SILVA, T. G. F. da.
Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito das variáveis meteorológicas e das dietas com diferentes níveis de feno de erva sal (Atriplex nummularia Lindl.) e palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus indica Mill) sobre as respostas horárias dos parâmetros fisiológicos e comportamento ingestivo dos novilhos da raça Sindi. Foram utilizados oito animais da raça Sindi, distribuídos em quadrado latino duplo com quatro tratamentos: 15, 30, 45 e 60% de inclusão de feno de erva-sal, em quatro períodos. As variáveis meteorológicas ao longo do dia exerceram forte influência sobre todas as respostas fisiológicas dos animais. Entretanto, a distribuição das atividades do comportamento ingestivo (alimentação, ruminação e ócio), ao longo das 24 horas, foi ritmada pelos horários de distribuição...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Erva sal; Atriplex nummularia; Dieta; Novilho; Raça Sindi; Feno; Comportamento ingestivo; Alimentação animal; Palma forrageira; Bovino; Welfare; Bioclimatology; Forage cactus; Semiarid; Temperature.
Ano: 2012 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/920665
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Dairy production of "Saanen" goats based on meteorological variables and future climate scenarios. Repositório Alice
PEQUENO, I. D.; TURCO, S. H. N.; SILVA, T. G. F. da; FACO, O..
Abstract: This study aimed to modeling and bioclimatic zoning of "Saanen" goat milk production in northeastern Brazil. Data were obtained from a 14-year dairy control program for 246 ?Saanen? goat matrices. Dairy production meteorological influence and mathematical modeling were assessed through statistical analyses such as Pearson?s correlation matrix and path analysis. Bioclimatic zoning for current and future scenarios, with climate changes, were delineated using inverse-square distance (ISD) and spherical model (kriging) interpolations. Results showed maximum air temperature to contribute substantially to goat dairy production; therefore, its modeling was based thereon. Current and future dairy production maps highlighted Maranhão and Piauí as regions...
Tipo: Artigo em periódico indexado (ALICE) Palavras-chave: Zoneamento bioclimático; Modelagem; Bioclimatic zoning; Índice de temperatura; Brasil; Região Nordeste; Caprino; Leite de cabra; Produção leiteira; Caatinga; Método estatístico; Análise de variância; Path analysis; Welfare; Stress; Climate change; Bioclimatology; Statistical methods; Brazil; Goat milk; Milk production.
Ano: 2017 URL: http://www.alice.cnptia.embrapa.br/handle/doc/1073269
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De Gustibus Asparagus: Habits, Trade, and Welfare from Out of Season Imports of Fresh Vegetables AgEcon
Ferrier, Peyton Michael; Zhen, Chen.
Fresh vegetables, including asparagus, are now available in months outside of the domestic growing season for most U.S. consumers. We use the virtual price method to calculate the equivalent variation for increased availability in a demand system for fresh and frozen vegetables and find that virtual price of out-of-season asparagus is roughly 3 times higher than its in-season price in years prior to year round availability. We find the equivalent variation between 1986-1991 (when asparagus was available approximately half the year) and 1993-1999 (when it was available year round) to be 0.91 of consumer vegetable budgets, implying a welfare benefit of approximately $86 million annually. We also find evidence of habit formation for fresh but not frozen...
Tipo: Conference Paper or Presentation Palavras-chave: Vegetable; Translog; Asparagus; Habits; Virtual price; Welfare; Fresh; Frozen; Consumer/Household Economics; Demand and Price Analysis; International Relations/Trade.
Ano: 2010 URL: http://purl.umn.edu/61160
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