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Registros recuperados: 1.420
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1. Address the what to do. 2. Income generation is first priority Ecology and Society
Pasternak, Dov; ICRISAT; d.pasternak@cgiar.org.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports
Ano: 2003
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A Bayesian belief network model for community-based coastal resource management in the Kei Islands, Indonesia Ecology and Society
Hoshino, Eriko; CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, TAS, Australia; Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; eriko.hoshino@csiro.au; van Putten, Ingrid; CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, TAS, Australia; Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; Ingrid.vanputten@csiro.au; Girsang, Wardis; Faculty of Agriculture, University of Pattimura, Ambon, Indonesia; girsang_2010@yahoo.com; Resosudarmo, Budy P; Indonesia Project, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics, Crawford School of Public Policy, Australian National University, ACT, Australia; budy.resosudarmo@anu.edu.au; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Tasmanian School of Business and Economics, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; Centre for Marine Socioecology, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia; satoshi.yamazaki@utas.edu.au.
Understanding the specific relationships between ecological and socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure is likely to contribute to successful functioning of self-governance institutions for common-pool resources. Complex interrelationships of factors influencing fishing activities of coastal communities and implementation of customary marine tenure over their waters can be represented in a Bayesian belief network model. We developed a Bayesian belief network model that includes the links between factors for fishing communities in the Kei Islands in Indonesia, based on indepth local surveys. Our results showed that the cumulative impacts of multiple factors on key social, economic, and environmental outcomes can be much larger than the impact from a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Bayesian belief network; Community-based management; Customary marine tenure; Indonesia; Small-scale fisheries; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2016
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A Biodiversity Informatics Approach to Ethnobotany: Meta-analysis of Plant Use Patterns in Ecuador Ecology and Society
Balslev, Henrik; Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University; henrik.balslev@biology.au.dk; Borchsenius, Finn; Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University; finn.borchsenius@biology.au.dk.
We explored the relative importance of ecosystem diversity, socioeconomic, environmental, and geographical factors in determining the pattern and diversity of people’s plant use in Ecuador, based on existing ethnobotanic investigations and a large database of georeferenced plant collections. For each of 40 communities, we determined the number of plants used and their distribution among 12 use categories. Plant species richness of the ecosystem surrounding each village was determined using herbarium data and rarefaction. Variation in socioeconomic, environmental, and geographical indicator variables at the community level was summarized using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Data were then analyzed using multiple regression and ordination...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Ecosystem diversity; Human– Plant interaction; Plant species richness; Socioeconomic environmental and geographical factors.
Ano: 2012
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A Case for Developing Place-Based Fire Management Strategies from Traditional Ecological Knowledge Ecology and Society
Ray, Lily A; Department of Geography, Clark University; Resilience and Adaptation Program, University of Alaska, Fairbanks ; lray@kawerak.org; Kolden, Crystal A; Department of Geography, University of Idaho; ckolden@uidaho.edu; Chapin III, F. Stuart; Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks ; terry.chapin@alaska.edu.
Sustainability science promotes place-based resource management because natural processes vary among ecosystems. When local science is limited, land managers may be forced to generalize from other ecosystems that function differently. One proposed solution is to draw upon the traditional ecological knowledge that indigenous groups have accumulated through resource use. Integrating traditional ecological knowledge with conventional resource management is difficult, especially when the two offer competing explanations of local environments. Although resource managers may discount traditional ecological knowledge that contradicts conventional resource management, we investigate the possibility that these disagreements can arise when nonlocal resource...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Alaska; Climate change; Indigenous knowledge; Traditional ecological knowledge; Wildfire.
Ano: 2012
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A Cautionary Note on Individual Transferable Quotas Ecology and Society
Sumaila, U. Rashid; UBC Fisheries Centre, University of British Columbia; r.sumaila@fisheries.ubc.ca.
Individual transferable quotas (ITQs) are a type of catch share system, which is a tool used by some governments to manage fisheries. Technical reasons for taking a rather cautious approach to the implementation of ITQs have been provided previously. In the current contribution, I first highlight the strengths and weaknesses of ITQs and then provide suggestions on how to design and implement these quotas to mitigate their weaknesses. ITQs need to be designed carefully as part of a broad ecosystem-based management scheme to meet the three generally accepted objectives of modern fisheries management: ecological, economic, and social sustainability.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Catch shares; Ecological sustainability; Economic sustainability; Economic efficiency; Exclusive and transferable rights; Ecosystem-based fisheries management; Fisheries; Individual transferable quotas; ITQs; Social sustainability.
Ano: 2010
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A Classification of Collaborative Management Methods Ecology and Society
Blumenthal, Dana M; University of Minnesota; dblumenthal@npa.ars.usda.gov; Jannink, Jean-Luc; University of Minnesota; jjannink@iastate.edu.
Collaboration among multiple stakeholders can be crucial to the success of natural resource management. In recent years, a wide variety of methods have been developed to facilitate such collaboration. Because these methods are relatively new and come from different disciplines, little attention has been paid to drawing comparisons among them. Thus, it is very difficult for potential users to sort through the increasingly large literature regarding such methods. We suggest the use of a consistent framework for comparing collaborative management methods, and develop such a framework based on five criteria: participation, institutional analysis, simplification of the natural resource, spatial scale, and stages in the process of natural resource management. We...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Agriculture; Agroecosystem analysis; Collaboration; Ecosystem management; Natural resource management; Participatory rural appraisal; Rapid rural appraisal; Soft systems analysis.
Ano: 2000
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A Classification of Landscape Services to Support Local Landscape Planning Ecology and Society
Van Eetvelde, Veerle; Ghent University, Department of Geography; veerle.vaneetvelde@UGent.be.
The ecosystem services approach has been proven successful to measure the contributions of nature and greenery to human well-being. Ecosystems have an effect on quality of life, but landscapes also, as a broader concept, may contribute to people’s well-being. The concept of landscape services, compared to ecosystem services, involves the social dimension of landscape and the spatial pattern resulting from both natural and human processes in the provision of benefits for human-well being. Our aim is to develop a classification for landscape services. The proposed typology of services is built on the Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES) and on a critical review of existing literature on human well-being dimensions,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Cultural services; Ecosystem services; Holism; Landscape services; Spatial pattern; Transdiciplinarity.
Ano: 2014
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A coastal foodscape: examining the relationship between changing fisheries and community food security on the west coast of Newfoundland Ecology and Society
Lowitt, Kristen N.; McGill University; kristen.lowitt@mcgill.ca.
Fisheries make vital contributions to food security and food security is an important part of fisheries governance. However, there are relatively few in-depth studies examining the consequences of collapsed and changing fisheries for the food security of coastal communities. In this case study I use the concept of the coastal foodscape to look at the relationship between changing fisheries and community food security in the Bonne Bay region on the west coast of Newfoundland. I examine the social-ecological interactions that compose the local food system and their changing relationship to community food security, and point to directions for developing a more resilient and democratic food system.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Community food security; Fisheries restructuring; Foodscapes.
Ano: 2014
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A conceptual framework to evaluate human-wildlife interactions within coupled human and natural systems Ecology and Society
Morzillo, Anita T.; University of Connecticut; anita.morzillo@uconn.edu; de Beurs, Kirsten M.; University of Oklahoma; kdebeurs@ou.edu; Martin-Mikle, Chelsea J.; University of Oklahoma; chelseajane.martin@gmail.com.
Landscape characteristics affect human-wildlife interactions. However, there is a need to better understand mechanisms that drive those interactions, particularly feedbacks that exist between wildlife-related impacts, human reaction to and behavior as a result of those impacts, and how land use and landscape characteristics may influence those components within coupled human and natural systems. Current conceptual models of human-wildlife interactions often focus on species population size as the independent variable driving those interactions. Such an approach potentially overlooks important feedbacks among and drivers of human-wildlife interactions that result from mere wildlife presence versus absence. We describe an emerging conceptual framework...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Coupled human and natural systems; Human-wildlife conflict; Human-wildlife interactions; Landscape ecology; Pesticides; Rodenticides; Wildlife management.
Ano: 2014
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A Contextual Analysis of Land-Use and Vegetation Changes in Two Wooded Pastures in the Swiss Jura Mountains Ecology and Society
Wettstein, Jean-Bruno; Bureau d'agronomie, Switzerland; jeanbrunowettstein97@gmail.com.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports
Ano: 2013
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A Critical Systems Approach to Social Learning: Building Adaptive Capacity in Social, Ecological, Epistemological (SEE) Systems Ecology and Society
McCarthy, Daniel D. P.; Waterloo Institute for Social innovation and Resilience (WISIR) University of Waterloo; dmccarth@uwaterloo.ca; Crandall, Debbe D.; Save the Oak Ridges Moraine Coalition; dcrandall@stormcoalition.org; Whitelaw, Graham S.; Queen's University; graham.whitelaw@queenu.ca; General, Zachariah; University of Waterloo; zachgeneral@gmail.com; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.; University of Waterloo; ljtsuji@uwaterloo.ca.
This paper presents a conceptual tool, or heuristic, for describing the epistemological context for social learning within complex social–ecological systems. The heuristic integrates several definitions of social learning that emphasize the importance of critical reflection and its collaborative nature and that it is rooted in and oriented toward practice through social interactions. The conceptual tool is useful in identifying and conceptually mapping different perspectives based on types of learning described along three dimensions: typology of knowledge; different levels of critical reflection; and scale. The heuristic was originally developed in the context of an environmental planning process in southern Ontario, Canada, and is applied to...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Adaptive capacity; Critical systems thinking; First Nations; Social learning.
Ano: 2011
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A diagnostic procedure for applying the social-ecological systems framework in diverse cases Ecology and Society
Hinkel, Jochen; Global Climate Forum (GCF), Berlin, Germany; hinkel@globalclimateforum.org; Cox, Michael E.; Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College, New Hampshire; michael.e.cox@dartmouth.edu; Binder, Claudia R.; University of Munich, Germany; claudia.binder@geographie.uni-muenchen.de; Falk, Thomas; University of Marburg, Germany; falkt@staff.uni-marburg.de.
The framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems (SES) framework of Elinor Ostrom is a multitier collection of concepts and variables that have proven to be relevant for understanding outcomes in diverse SES. The first tier of this framework includes the concepts resource system (RS) and resource units (RU), which are then further characterized through lower tier variables such as clarity of system boundaries and mobility. The long-term goal of framework development is to derive conclusions about which combinations of variables explain outcomes across diverse types of SES. This will only be possible if the concepts and variables of the framework can be made operational unambiguously for the different types of SES, which, however,...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Common-pool resource; Commons; Complex commons; Public good; Resource system; Resource unit; SES; Social-ecological system; Social-ecological system framework; Sustainability.
Ano: 2015
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A Diagnostic Procedure for Transformative Change Based on Transitions, Resilience, and Institutional Thinking Ecology and Society
Ferguson, Briony C.; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; briony.ferguson@monash.edu; Brown, Rebekah R.; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; Rebekah.Brown@monash.edu; Deletic, Ana; Department of Civil Engineering; Monash Water for Liveability; Cooperative Research Centre for Water Sensitive Cities; Monash University; ana.deletic@monash.edu.
Urban water governance regimes around the world have traditionally planned large-scale, centralized infrastructure systems that aim to control variables and reduce uncertainties. There is growing sectoral awareness that a transition toward sustainable alternatives is necessary if systems are to meet society’s future water needs in the context of drivers such as climate change and variability, demographic changes, environmental degradation, and resource scarcity. However, there is minimal understanding of how the urban water sector should operationalize its strategic planning for such change to facilitate the transition to a sustainable water future. We have integrated concepts from transitions, resilience, and institutional theory to develop a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Institutions; Resilience; Strategic planning; Sustainability; Transformative change; Transition; Urban water.
Ano: 2013
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A Diagrammatic Approach to Understanding Complex Eco-Social Interactions in Kathmandu, Nepal Ecology and Society
Neudoerffer, R. Cynthia; University of Guelph; rneudoer@uoguelph.ca; Waltner-Toews, David; University of Guelph; dwaltner@uoguelph.ca; Kay, James J.; Deceased 05/30/ 2004. Faculty of Environmental Studies, University of Waterloo;; Joshi, D. D.; NZFHRC;; Tamang, Mukta S.; SAGUN;.
As part of developing an international network of community-based ecosystem approaches to health, a project was undertaken in a densely populated and socio-economically diverse area of Kathmandu, Nepal. Drawing on hundreds of pages of narrative reports based on surveys, interviews, secondary data, and focus groups by trained Nepalese facilitators, the authors created systemic depictions of relationships between multiple stakeholder groups, ecosystem health, and human health. These were then combined to examine interactions among stakeholders, activities, concerns, perceived needs, and resource states (ecosystem health indicators). These qualitative models have provided useful heuristics for both community members and research scholars to understand the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Complex systems theory; Ecosystem approaches; Human health; Kathmandu; Nepal; Social-ecological systems..
Ano: 2005
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A First Nations-led social innovation: a moose, a gold mining company, and a policy window Ecology and Society
McCarthy, Daniel D. P.; University of Waterloo; dmccarth@uwaterloo.ca; Millen, Martin; Anishanaabe Maamwaye Aki Kiigayewin ; firestarter4812@yahoo.ca; Boyden, Mary; Porcupine Gold Mines; mary.boyden@goldcorp.com; Alexiuk, Erin ; University of Waterloo; ealexiuk@gmail.com; Larkman, Dorothy; University of Waterloo; manaupin@hotmail.com; Rowe, Giidaakunadaad (Nancy); University of Waterloo; giidaakunadaad@gmail.com; Westley, Frances R.; University of Waterloo; fwestley@uwaterloo.ca.
A recent focusing event involving the death of a moose in the Dome open-pit mine in the community of Timmins, in northern Ontario, Canada has triggered the opening of a policy window related to the governance of resource extraction by indigenous peoples. This event, combined with several other factors, including: (1) the high price of gold; (2) a mining company seeking to demonstrate corporate social responsibility to repair its international reputation with indigenous peoples by supporting an innovative, local Indigenous-led initiative; and (3) a new policy context, including Supreme Court of Canada decisions and provisions in the updated Ontario Mining Act, that require meaningful consultation with indigenous peoples has led to the emergence of a...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Critical indigenous research; Indigenous-led innovation; Policy window; Social innovation; Traditional knowledge.
Ano: 2014
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A Forest Management Map of European Forests Ecology and Society
Hengeveld, Geerten M.; ALTERRA - Wageningen UR; Geerten.Hengeveld@wur.nl; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; European Forest Institute; gert-jan.nabuurs@efi.int; Didion, Markus; ALTERRA - Wageningen UR; Markus.didion@wur.nl; van den Wyngaert, Isabel; ALTERRA - Wageningen UR; isabel.vandenwyngaert@wur.nl; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. (Sandra); ALTERRA - Wageningen UR; Sandra.Clerkx@wur.nl; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; ALTERRA - Wageningen UR; martjan.schelhaas@wur.nl.
Forest management to a large extent determines the possible services that the forest can provide. Different objectives in forest management determine the rotation length and valuation of different stages in forest succession. We present a method of mapping potential forest management at 1-km resolution to inform policy, land use modeling, and forest resource projections. The presented method calculates the suitability of a location to different forest management alternatives based on biotic, abiotic, socioeconomic, and political factors. A sensitivity analysis of the resulting map to the data sources used was performed. This showed that the results are very sensitive to some data sources. The potential use of the map and the sensitivity to the availability...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Europe; Forest management approach; Land use mapping.
Ano: 2012
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A Fractal Landscape Realizer for Generating Synthetic Maps Ecology and Society
Hargrove, William; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; hnw@fire.esd.ornl.gov; Hoffman, Forrest M; Oak Ridge National Laboratory;; Schwartz, Paul M; ;.
A fractal landscape realizer has been developed that generates synthetic landscape maps to user specifications. The alternative landscape realizations are not identical to the actual maps after which they are patterned, but are similar statistically (i.e., the areas and fractal character of each category are replicated). A fractal or self-affine pattern generator is used to provide a spatial probability surface for each category in the synthetic map. The Fractal Realizer arbitrates contentions among categories in a way that makes it possible to preserve the fractal patterns of all the categories in the resulting synthetic landscape. Each synthetic landscape is one equally likely realization from among an infinite ensemble of possible fractal landscape...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: FRAGSTATS; Fractal Realizer; Turing Test; Categorical maps; Fractal; Landscape ecology; Neutral model; Null model; Pattern; Pseudoreplication; Realization; Simulation; Synthetic map.
Ano: 2002
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A framework for analyzing, comparing, and diagnosing social-ecological systems Ecology and Society
Bots, Pieter W. G.; Delft University of Technology; p.w.g.bots@tudelft.nl; Sendzimir, Jan; International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA); sendzim@iiasa.ac.at.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Framework development; Governance system; Resource system; Sustainability.
Ano: 2015
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A Framework for Evaluating Land Use Planning Alternatives: Protecting Biodiversity on Private Land Ecology and Society
Theobald, David; Colorado State University/The Nature Conservancy; davet@nrel.colostate.edu; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Colorado State University/Colorado Division of Wildlife; nthobbs@nrel.colostate.edu.
Planning activities by local government often seek to identify areas of land that offer particularly high value for conserving biotic resources. Because private land is being developed rapidly, there is heightened concern about identifying these areas. Although general principles on setting priorities for habitat protection are emerging, substantial ambiguity remains about how to implement these principles. Here, we offer a general modeling framework for evaluating how planning alternatives could affect Critical Habitat. The framework contains four components: stakeholder involvement, spatial modeling of Critical Habitat and development patterns, analysis of alternative scenarios, and evaluation and monitoring. We illustrate this approach using a case...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: Alternative scenarios; Biodiversity; Build-out analysis; Critical habitat maps; Evaluation; Habitat protection; Local decision making; Monitoring; Private land use planning; Rural sprawl; Spatial modeling; Stakeholder involvement.
Ano: 2002
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A Framework for Participatory Impact Assessment: Involving Stakeholders in European Policy Making, a Case Study of Land Use Change in Malta Ecology and Society
Morris, Jake Breton; Forest Research; jake.morris@forestry.gsi.gov.uk; Tassone, Valentina; Wageningen University; Valentina.Tassone@wur.nl; de Groot, Rudolf; Wageningen University; Dolf.deGroot@wur.nl; Camilleri, Marguerite; Malta Environment & Planning Authority; Marguerite.Camilleri@mepa.org.mt; Moncada, Stefano; University of Malta; stefano.moncada@um.edu.mt.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Reports Palavras-chave: European policy making; Land use change; Malta; Participatory impact assessment; Stakeholder participation.
Ano: 2011
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