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A basic guide for empirical environmental social science Ecology and Society
Cox, Michael; Environmental Studies Program, Dartmouth College; michael.e.cox@dartmouth.edu.
In this paper, I address a gap in the literature on environmental social science by providing a basic rubric for the conduct of empirical research in this interdisciplinary field. Current literature displays a healthy diversity of methods and techniques, but this has also been accompanied by a lack of consistency in the way in which research in this area is done. In part this can be seen as resulting from a lack in supporting texts that would provide a basis for this consistency. Although relevant methods texts do exist, these are not written with this type of research explicitly in mind, and so translating them to this field can be awkward. This paper is designed to fill this gap and enable more consistency in the conduct of empirical environmental social...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Environmental social science; Research design; Research methods.
Ano: 2015
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A Cognition-based View of Decision Processes in Complex Social–Ecological Systems Ecology and Society
Beratan, Kathi K.; Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University; Kathi_Beratan@ncsu.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Cognition; Complex social– Ecological systems; Cultural change; Decision making; Discourse; Natural resource management; Schemas.
Ano: 2007
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A decade of adaptive governance scholarship: synthesis and future directions Ecology and Society
Chaffin, Brian C.; Geography Program, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University; chaffinb@geo.oregonstate.edu; Gosnell, Hannah; Geography Program, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University; gosnellh@geo.oregonstate.edu; Cosens, Barbara A.; College of Law and Waters of the West Program, University of Idaho; bcosens@uidaho.edu.
Adaptive governance is an emergent form of environmental governance that is increasingly called upon by scholars and practitioners to coordinate resource management regimes in the face of the complexity and uncertainty associated with rapid environmental change. Although the term “adaptive governance” is not exclusively applied to the governance of social-ecological systems, related research represents a significant outgrowth of literature on resilience, social-ecological systems, and environmental governance. We present a chronology of major scholarship on adaptive governance, synthesizing efforts to define the concept and identifying the array of governance concepts associated with transformation toward adaptive governance. Based...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive governance; Environmental governance; Literature review; Resilience.
Ano: 2014
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A Framework for Clarifying “Participation” in Participatory Research to Prevent its Rejection for the Wrong Reasons Ecology and Society
Barreteau, Olivier; Cemagref UMR G-EAU; olivier.barreteau@cemagref.fr; Bots, Pieter W. G.; Delft University of Technology; p.w.g.bots@tudelft.nl; Daniell, Katherine A; Australian National University; katherine.daniell@gmail.com.
Participatory research relies on stakeholder inputs to obtain its acclaimed benefits of improved social relevance, validity, and actionability of research outcomes. We focus here on participatory research in the context of natural resource management. Participants’ acceptance of participatory research processes is key to their implementation. Our first assumption is that this positive view and acceptance of participation in research processes is a public good for the whole participatory research community. We also assume that the diversity of participatory forms of research is rarely considered by potential participants when they make their decisions about whether or not to participate in a proposed process. We specifically address how to avoid...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Framing; Information flow; Participatory research; Water management.
Ano: 2010
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A multilevel evolutionary framework for sustainability analysis Ecology and Society
Waring, Timothy M; Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions and School of Economics, University of Maine; timothy.waring@maine.edu; Kline, Michelle Ann; School of Human Evolution and Social Change, Arizona State University; Institute for Human Origins, Arizona State University; michelle.ann.kline@gmail.com; Brooks, Jeremy S; School of Environment and Natural Resources, The Ohio State University; brooks.719@osu.edu; Goff, Sandra H; School of Economics, University of Maine; Economics Department, Skidmore College; sgoff@skidmore.edu; Gowdy, John; Department of Economics and Department of Science and Technology Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; gowdyj@rpi.edu; Janssen, Marco A; School of Sustainability, Arizona State University; marco.janssen@asu.edu; Smaldino, Paul E; Department of Anthropology, University of California, Davis; paul.smaldino@gmail.com; Jacquet, Jennifer; Department of Environmental Studies, New York University; jj84@nyu.edu.
Sustainability theory can help achieve desirable social-ecological states by generalizing lessons across contexts and improving the design of sustainability interventions. To accomplish these goals, we argue that theory in sustainability science must (1) explain the emergence and persistence of social-ecological states, (2) account for endogenous cultural change, (3) incorporate cooperation dynamics, and (4) address the complexities of multilevel social-ecological interactions. We suggest that cultural evolutionary theory broadly, and cultural multilevel selection in particular, can improve on these fronts. We outline a multilevel evolutionary framework for describing social-ecological change and detail how multilevel cooperative dynamics can determine...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Cooperation; Cultural evolution; Multilevel selection; Sustainability; Theory.
Ano: 2015
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A Review of Design Principles for Community-based Natural Resource Management Ecology and Society
Cox, Michael; Indiana University; miecox@indiana.edu; Arnold, Gwen; Indiana University; gbarnold@indiana.edu.
In 1990, Elinor Ostrom proposed eight design principles, positing them to characterize robust institutions for managing common-pool resources such as forests or fisheries. Since then, many studies have explicitly or implicitly evaluated these design principles. We analyzed 91 such studies to evaluate the principles empirically and to consider what theoretical issues have arisen since their introduction. We found that the principles are well supported empirically and that several important theoretical issues warrant discussion. We provide a reformulation of the design principles, drawing from commonalities found in the studies.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Common-pool resources; Design principles; Diagnostics; Institutions.
Ano: 2010
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A Review of Two Payment Schemes for Watershed Services from China and Vietnam: the Interface of Government Control and PES Theory Ecology and Society
Kolinjivadi, Vijay K; Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR); vijay.kolinjivadi@mail.mcgill.ca; Sunderland, Terry; Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR); T.Sunderland@cgiar.org.
China and Vietnam have developed some of the most ambitious payments for ecosystem services (PES) initiatives for watershed conservation and forest management. These include the Sloping Land Conversion Programme in China and pilot projects designed to implement Decision 380 and the subsequent national PES law in Vietnam. This study reviews how these two government-driven initiatives are achieving their environment and development objectives in terms of their institutional arrangements, implementation in practice, and sustainability prospects. Although it remains too soon to determine the effects of these programs on watershed services, early evidence indicates that they are resulting in vulnerable land being retired from cultivation supported, in some...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: China; Environment; Payments for ecosystem services; Vietnam; Well-being.
Ano: 2012
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A Synthesis of Current Approaches to Traps Is Useful But Needs Rethinking for Indigenous Disadvantage and Poverty Research Ecology and Society
Maru, Yiheyis T; CSIRO; yiheyis.maru@csiro.au; Fletcher, Cameron S; CSIRO; Cameron.Fletcher@csiro.au; Chewings, Vanessa H; CSIRO; vanessa.chewings@csiro.au.
Indigenous disadvantage and poverty have persisted and are set to continue into the future. Although a large amount of work describes the extent and nature of indigenous disadvantage and poverty, there is little evidence-based systems understanding of the mechanisms that keep many indigenous people in their current dire state. In such a vacuum, policy makers are left to make assumptions about the causal mechanisms. The persistence of inequality and poverty suffered by indigenous people is broadly consistent with the existence of dynamical traps as described in both the resilience and development literature. We reviewed and synthesized these bodies of literature on traps and found that although they give a good lead to a systemic and parsimonious way of...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Developments; Indigenous disadvantage; Poverty traps; Resilience; Rigidity traps.
Ano: 2012
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A Systems Approach Framework for the Transition to Sustainable Development: Potential Value Based on Coastal Experiments Ecology and Society
Hopkins , Tom S.; North Carolina State University, Raleigh, USA; CNR Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, Naples, Italy; tom_hopkins@ncsu.edu; Bailly, Denis; University of Brest, Brest, France; Denis.Bailly@univ-brest.fr; Elmgren, Ragnar; Stockholm University; ragnar.elmgren@ecology.su.se; Glegg, Gillian; Plymouth Marine Station; G.Glegg@plymouth.ac.uk; Sandberg , Audun ; ; audun.sandberg@hibo.no.
This article explores the value of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF) as a tool for the transition to sustainable development in coastal zone systems, based on 18 study sites in Europe, where the SAF was developed and tested. The knowledge gained from these experiments concerns the practical aspects of (a) governance in terms of policy effectiveness, (b) sustainability science in terms of applying transdisciplinary science to social–ecological problems, and (c) simulation analysis in terms of quantifying dysfunctions in complex systems. This new knowledge can help broaden our perspectives on how research can be changed to better serve society. The infusion of systems thinking into research and policy making leads to a preference for...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Coastal zones; Integrated coastal zone management; Non-market valuation; Scale-free networks; Simulation analysis; Sustainability science; Sustainable development; Systems approach; Transdisciplinary assessments.
Ano: 2012
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A Theory of Transformative Agency in Linked Social-Ecological Systems Ecology and Society
Westley, Frances R.; Waterloo Institute for Social Innovation and Resilience; fwestley@uwaterloo.ca; Tjornbo, Ola; Waterloo Institute for Social Innovation and Resilience; ola.tjornbo@gmail.com; Schultz, Lisen; Stockholm Resilience Centre; lisen@ecology.su.se; Olsson, Per; Stockholm Resilience Centre; per.olsson@stockholmresilience.su.se; Folke, Carl; Stockholm Resilience Centre; carl.folke@beijer.kva.se; Crona, Beatrice; Stockholm Resilience Centre; beatrice.crona@stockholmresilience.su.se.
We reviewed the literature on leadership in linked social-ecological systems and combined it with the literature on institutional entrepreneurship in complex adaptive systems to develop a new theory of transformative agency in linked social-ecological systems. Although there is evidence of the importance of strategic agency in introducing innovation and transforming approaches to management and governance of such systems, there is no coherent theory to explain the wide diversity of strategies identified. Using Holling’s adaptive cycle as a model of phases present in innovation and transformation of resilient social-ecological systems, overlaid by Dorado’s model of opportunity context (opaque, hazy, transparent) in complex adaptive...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Institutional entrepreneurship; Skills; Social innovation; Transformation of linked social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2013
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A Typology of Benefit Sharing Arrangements for the Governance of Social-Ecological Systems in Developing Countries Ecology and Society
Nkhata, Bimo Abraham; Water Research Node, Monash South Africa; bimo.nkhata@monash.edu; Mosimane, Alfons; Centre for Environment, Agriculture and Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; alfons.mosimane@gmail.com; Downsborough, Linda; Water Research Node, Monash South Africa; Linda.Downsborough@monash.edu; Breen, Charles; Centre for Environment, Agriculture and Development, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa; breenc@telkomsa.net; Roux, Dirk J; Water Research Node, Monash South Africa; dirk.roux@monash.edu.
This study explores and interprets relevant literature to construct a typology of benefit sharing arrangements for the governance of social-ecological systems in developing countries. The typology comprises three generic categories of benefit sharing arrangements: collaborative, market-oriented, and egalitarian. We contend that the three categories provide a useful basis for exploring and classifying the different societal arrangements required for governance of social-ecological systems. The typology we present is founded on a related set of explicit assumptions that can be used to explore and better understand the linkages among ecosystem services, benefit sharing, and governance. Issues that are strongly related to sustainability in developing countries...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Benefit sharing; Developing countries; Ecosystem services; Governance; Social-ecological systems; Typology.
Ano: 2012
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Accommodating the Challenges of Climate Change Adaptation and Governance in Conventional Risk Management: Adaptive Collaborative Risk Management (ACRM) Ecology and Society
May, Bradley; Adaptation and Impacts Research Section, Environment Canada; Bradley.May@ec.gc.ca; Plummer, Ryan; Brock University, Canada; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University; ryan.plummer@brocku.ca.
Risk management is a well established tool for climate change adaptation. It is facing new challenges with the end of climate stationarity and the need to meaningfully engage people in governance issues. The ways in which conventional approaches to risk management can respond to these challenges are explored. Conventional approaches to risk management are summarized, the manner in which they are being advanced as a tool for climate change adaptation is described, and emerging themes in risk management and climate change adaption are documented. It is argued that conventional risk management for climate change adaptation can benefit from the insights and experiences of adaptive co-management. A hybrid approach termed adaptive collaborative risk management...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive collaborative risk management; Adaptive co-management; Climate change adaptation; Climate change governance; Risk management.
Ano: 2011
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Acknowledging Trade-offs and Understanding Complexity: Exurbanization Issues in Macon County, North Carolina Ecology and Society
Vercoe, Richard A.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; ravercoe@uga.edu; Welch-Devine, M.; Center for Integrative Conservation Research, University of Georgia; mwdevine@uga.edu; Hardy, Dean; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia; rdhardy@uga.edu; Demoss, J. A.; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia; jdemoss@uga.edu; Bonney, S. N.; Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia; sbonney@uga.edu; Allen, K.; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia; kallen@uga.edu; Brosius, Peter; Department of Anthropology, University of Georgia; pbrosius@uga.edu; Charles, D.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; dhc31@uga.edu; Crawford, B.; Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia; bcrawford515@gmail.com; Heisel, S.; Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia; saraelizabethheisel@yahoo.com; Heynen, Nik; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; nheynen@uga.edu; Nibbelink, N.; Warnell School of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Georgia; nate@warnell.uga.edu; Parker, L.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; loweryp@uga.edu; Pringle, Cathy; Odum School of Ecology, University of Georgia; pringle@sparc.ecology.uga.edu; Shaw, A.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; alanashaw@uga.edu; Van Sant, L.; Department of Geography, University of Georgia; leviv@uga.edu.
We applied an integrative framework to illuminate and discuss the complexities of exurbanization in Macon County, North Carolina. The case of Macon County, North Carolina, highlights the complexity involved in addressing issues of exurbanization in the Southern Appalachian region. Exurbanization, the process by which urban residents move into rural areas in search of unique natural amenities and idealized lifestyles, can often have a dramatic impact on the local economy, culture, and environment. Within Macon County, complex debates and tensions among multiple stakeholders struggle to address local residential development. How can better problem definition benefit rural communities in addressing exurbanization pressures and effects? We asserted that a key...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Conservation; Development; Ecological; Exurbanization; Integrative conservation; Trade-offs.
Ano: 2014
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Adaptive Management Planning Projects as Conflict Resolution Processes Ecology and Society
Walkerden, Greg; Macquarie University; gmw@bwassociates.com.au.
Adaptive management planning projects use multiparty, multidisciplinary workshops and simulation modeling to facilitate dialogue, negotiation, and planning. However, they have been criticized as a poor medium for conflict resolution. Alternative processes from the conflict resolution tradition, e.g., principled negotiation and sequenced negotiation, address uncertainty and biophysical constraints much less skillfully than does adaptive management. When we evaluate adaptive management planning using conflict resolution practice as a benchmark, we can design better planning procedures. Adaptive management planning procedures emerge that explore system structure, dynamics, and uncertainty, and that also provide a strong negotiation process, grounded in...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Conflict resolution; Crossing; Ecosystem management; Environmental management; Negotiation; Planning; Practice; Principled negotiation; Professional practice; Resource management; Strategic environmental assessment..
Ano: 2006
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Advancing the understanding of behavior in social-ecological systems: results from lab and field experiments Ecology and Society
Janssen, Marco A; Arizona State University; Marco.Janssen@asu.edu; Lindahl, Therese; Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Science; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University; therese.lindahl@beijer.kva.se; Murphy, James J; Nankai University; University of Alaska Anchorage; Chapman University; murphy@uaa.alaska.edu.
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Behavioral economics; Common-pool resources; Experimental economics; Public goods; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2015
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Altered Ecological Flows Blur Boundaries in Urbanizing Watersheds Ecology and Society
Lookingbill, Todd R; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science; tlooking@richmond.edu; Kaushal, Sujay S; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science;; Elmore, Andrew J; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science;; Gardner, Robert; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science;; Eshleman, Keith N; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science;; Hilderbrand, Robert H; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science;; Morgan, Raymond P; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science;; Boynton, Walter R; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science;; Palmer, Margaret A; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science;; Dennison, William C; University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science;.
The relevance of the boundary concept to ecological processes has been recently questioned. Humans in the post-industrial era have created novel lateral transport fluxes that have not been sufficiently considered in watershed studies. We describe patterns of land-use change within the Potomac River basin and demonstrate how these changes have blurred traditional ecosystem boundaries by increasing the movement of people, materials, and energy into and within the basin. We argue that this expansion of ecological commerce requires new science, monitoring, and management strategies focused on large rivers and suggest that traditional geopolitical and economic boundaries for environmental decision making be appropriately revised. Effective mitigation of the...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Catchment ecology; Chesapeake Bay; Interdisciplinary science; Large river; Potomac River; Restoration; Urban metabolism.
Ano: 2009
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An Indicator Framework for Assessing Agroecosystem Resilience Ecology and Society
Cabell, Joshua F; Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Norwegian University of Life Sciences; josh.cabell@gmail.com; Oelofse, Myles; Department of Agriculture and Ecology, Copenhagen University; myles@life.ku.dk.
Taking departure in the theory of resilience in social-ecological systems, we present an analysis and discussion of how resilience theory can be applied to agroecosystems. Building on the premise that agroecosystems are too complex for resilience to be measured in any precise manner, we delineate behavior-based indicators of resilience within agroecosystems. Based on a review of relevant literature, we present and discuss an index of 13 such indicators, which, when identified in an agroecosystem, suggest that it is resilient and endowed with the capacity for adaptation and transformation. Absence of these indicators identifies points of intervention for managers and stakeholders to build resilience where there is vulnerability. The indicators encompass...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive cycle; Agroecosystems; Behavior-based indicators; Resilience; Social-ecological systems.
Ano: 2012
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An information ecology approach to science–policy integration in adaptive management of social-ecological systems Ecology and Society
Eddy, Brian G; Atlantic Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada; Brian.Eddy@NRCan.gc.ca; Hearn, Brian; Atlantic Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada; Brian.Hearn@NRCan-RNCan.gc.ca; Luther, Joan E; Atlantic Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada; JoanE.Luther@NRCan-RNCan.gc.ca; van Zyll de Jong, Michael; Environmental Policy Institute, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland; michaelv@grenfell.mun.ca; Bowers, Wade; Environmental Policy Institute, Grenfell Campus, Memorial University of Newfoundland; wbowers@grenfell.mun.ca; Parsons, Reg; Atlantic Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada; Reg.Parsons@NRCan-RNCan.gc.ca; Piercey, Douglas; Atlantic Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada; Douglas.Piercey@NRCan-RNCan.gc.ca; Strickland, Guy; Atlantic Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada; Guy.Strickland@NRCan-RNCan.gc.ca; Wheeler, Barry; Atlantic Forestry Centre, Natural Resources Canada; Barry.Wheeler@NRCan-RNCan.gc.ca.
Adaptive management of social-ecological systems requires integration and collaboration among scientists, policy makers, practitioners, and stakeholders across multiple disciplines and organizations. Challenges associated with such integration have been attributed to gaps between how human systems are organized and how ecosystems function. To address this gap, we explore the application of information ecology as a theoretical basis for integrating human systems and natural systems. First, we provide an overview of information ecology with reference to its relationship with information theory and how we define “information.” Principles governing whole-part relationships, i.e., holons and holarchies, are then used to develop a general...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Adaptive management; Ecosystems-based management; Holons; Information ecology; Information theory; Science– Policy integration.
Ano: 2014
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An Integrated Approach to Analyzing (Adaptive) Comanagement Using the “Politicized” IAD Framework Ecology and Society
Whaley, Luke; Water Science Institute, Cranfield University; l.whaley@cranfield.ac.uk; Weatherhead, Edward K.; Water Science Institute, Cranfield University; k.weatherhead@cranfield.ac.uk.
Scholars of comanagement are faced with a difficult methodological challenge. As comanagement has evolved and diversified it has increasingly merged with the field of adaptive management and related concepts that derive from resilience thinking and complex adaptive systems theory. In addition to earlier considerations of power sharing, institution building, and trust, the adaptive turn in comanagement has brought attention to the process of social learning and a focus on concepts such as scale, self-organization, and system trajectory. At the same time, a number of scholars are calling for a more integrated approach to studying (adaptive) comanagement that is able to situate these normative concepts within a critical understanding of how context and power...
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Comanagement; Adaptive comanagement; IAD Framework; Politicized IAD Framework; Methodology; Institutions; Power; Discourse; Resilience.
Ano: 2014
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An Operational Framework for Defining and Monitoring Forest Degradation Ecology and Society
Thompson, Ian D; Canadian Forest Service; ian.thompson@nrcan.gc.ca; Guariguata, Manuel R.; Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR); M.GUARIGUATA@CGIAR.ORG; Okabe, Kimiko; FFPRI Tsukuba; kimikook@ffpri.affrc.go.jp; Bahamondez, Carlos; INFOR Valdivia; cbahamon@infor.cl; Nasi, Robert; Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR); r.nasi@cgiar.org; Heymell, Victoria; FAO Rome; Victoria.Heymell@fao.org; Sabogal, Cesar; FAO Rome; cesar.sabogal@fao.org.
Forest degradation is broadly defined as a reduction in the capacity of a forest to produce ecosystem services such as carbon storage and wood products as a result of anthropogenic and environmental changes. The main causes of degradation include unsustainable logging, agriculture, invasive species, fire, fuelwood gathering, and livestock grazing. Forest degradation is widespread and has become an important consideration in global policy processes that deal with biodiversity, climate change, and forest management. There is, however, no generally recognized way to identify a degraded forest because perceptions of forest degradation vary depending on the cause, the particular goods or services of interest, and the temporal and spatial scales considered....
Tipo: Peer-Reviewed Synthesis Palavras-chave: Biodiversity; Carbon; Criteria and indicators; Forest degradation; Forest management; Remote sensing.
Ano: 2013
Registros recuperados: 210
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